La brecha de género en la academia universitaria: inequidad de oportunidades de participación, capacitación y promoción

María Ángeles Martínez Ruiz, Gladys Merma-Molina, María Alejandra Ávalos Ramos

Resumo


Diferentes investigaciones muestran que el incremento cuantitativo de la presencia de la mujer en la universidad puede convertirse en una densa cortina de humo que impide distinguir las micropolíticas de dominación patriarcal. El objetivo de este estudio es desentrañar los mecanismos encubiertos de discriminación que vivencian las mujeres en la universidad. Los resultados muestran que persiste el efecto tijera en las universidades españolas, donde a pesar de acceder más mujeres que hombres a la universidad, ellas descienden abruptamente en las plazas de personal investigador o de catedráticos. La falta de participación se ve agravada por otros sesgos, como el sexismo benevolente, relacionado con el acceso a los espacios de poder. Nuestra propuesta a esta problemática se basa en la necesidad de mantener espacios de participación, sensibles a la diferencia, comunidades de aprendizaje laboral y de práctica profesional que permitan a las académicas participar activamente en la universidad.

Palavras-chave


brecha de género, igualdad, ciencia y tecnología

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Acker, Sandra; Dillabough, Jo-Anne. (2007). Women ‘learning to labour’ in the ‘male emporium’: Exploring gendered work in teacher education. Gender and Education, 19, (3), pp. 297-316.

Bagilhole, Bárbara; Goode, Jackie. (2001). The contradiction of the myth of individual merit, and the reality of a patriarchal support system in academic careers: A feminist investigation. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(2), pp. 161-180.

Beagan, Brenda. (2001). Micro inequities and everyday inequalities: Race, gender, sexuality and class in medical school. The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 26(4), pp.583-610.

Bevan, Valerie; Learmonth, Mark. (2012). I wouldn’t say it’s sexism, except that … It’s all these little subtle things: Healthcare scientists’ accounts of gender in healthcare science laboratories. Social Studies of Science, 43(1), pp. 136-158.

Cech, Erin; Rubineau, Brian; Silbey, Susan; Serond, Caroll. (2011). Professional role confidence and gendered persistence in engineering. American Sociological Review, 76(5), pp. 641-666.

CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTÍFICAS-CSIC. Informe mujeres investigadoras, 2018.

Davis, Kathryn. (2003). Teaching for gender equity in physical education: a review of the literature. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(2), pp. 55-81.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, NATIONAL CENTRE FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS. The condition of education, 2015. Recuperado de: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015144.pdf

Dugger, Karen. (2001). Women in Higher Education in the United States: I has there been progress?. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 21( ½), pp. 118-130.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. She Figures 2012. Gender in Research and Innovation Statistics and Indicators. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2012. Recuperado de: http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document library/pdf 06/she-figures-2012 en.pdf

Francis, Becky; BURKE, Penny; READ, Bárbara. (2014). The submergence and re-emergence of gender in undergraduate accounts of university experience. Gender and Education, 26(1), pp. 1-17.

Genset. Recomandation for action on the gender dimension in Science, 2010. Recuperado de: http://www.genderinscience.org/downloads/genSETConsensusReportRecomendationsforActiontheGenderDimensioninScience.pdf.

Kay, Katty; Shipman, Claire. (2014). The confidence code. The science and art of self-assurance – what women should know. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

King, Eden; Botsford, W; Helb, MR; Kazama, S; Dawson, JF; Perkins, A. (2012) Benevolent sexism at work: Gender difference in the distribution of challenging developmental experiences. Journal of Managament, 38(6), pp. 1835-1866.

Kleinman, Sherryl. (2002). Why sexist language matters. Qualitative Sociology, 2(2), pp. 299-304.

Knights, David; Richards, Wendy. (2003). Sex discrimination in UK academia. Gender, Work and Organization, 10(2), pp. 213-237.

Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Andrews Helmke, Laura; Ülkü‐Steiner, Beril. (2006) Gender and doctoral studies: The perceptions of Ph. D. students in an American university. Gender and Education, 18(2), pp. 137-155.

Lieberman, Ann y Pointer Mace, Desiree. (2010). Making practice public: Teacher learning in the 21st century. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), pp. 77-88.

Lozano, Inés, Iglesias, Marcos; Martínez, María Ángeles. (2014). Las oportunidades de las académicas en el desarrollo profesional docente universitario: Un estudio cualitativo. EducaciónXX1, 17(1), pp.157-182.

Maher, Frances; Tetreault, Mary Kay Thompson. (2011). Long‐term transformations: excavating privilege and diversity in the academy. Gender and Education, 23(3), pp. 281-297.

Martínez, María Ángeles; Mañas, Carmen. El inicio de la visibilidad: el centro de Estudios de la Mujer de la Universidad de Alicante. In M. Álvarez, R. Bohórquez, J.C. Velásquez. (Coord.). (2016). Diseño y Atención a las oportunidades de género en la Educación Superior (pp. 34-56). Bogotá, DC: Editorial FEDICOR.

Meulders, Danièle; Plasman, Robert; Rigo, Audrey; O’dorchai, Sile. (2010). Horizontal and vertical segregation. Meta-analysis of gender and science research-topic report. Recuperado de: https://genderedinnovations.stanford.edu/images/TR1_Segregation.pdf

MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN, CULTURA Y DEPORTE (MECD). Datos y cifras del sistema universitario español. Curso 2014/2015. Madrid: Subdirección General de Documentación y Publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2015. Recuperado de: http://www.mecd.gob.es/dms/mecd/educacion-mecd/areas-educacion/universidades/estadisticas-informes/datos-cifras/Datos-y-Cifras-del-SUE-Curso-2014-2015.pdf

Morley, Louise. (2006). Hidden transcripts: the micropolitics of gender in Commonwealth universities. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29, pp.543-551.

Morrison, Zoe; Bourke, Mary; Kelley, Caroline. (2005). Stop making it such a big issue: Perceptions and experiences of gender inequality by undergraduates at a British University. Women’s Studies International Forum, 28, pp. 150-162.

Mosconi, Nicole. (2001). How do they make the teaching practices of gender inequality? Records of Sciences of Education, 5, pp. 97-109.

NAP-The National Academy Press. (2009). Gender differences at critical transitions in the careers of science, engineering and mathematics faculty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

OECD. (2015). Report to G7 Leaders on women and entrepreneurship.

ONU-MUJERES. (2016). Hechos y cifras: Acabar con la violencia contra mujeres y niñas.

Parks, Janet; ROBERTON, Mary Ann. (2005). Explaining age and gender effect on attitudes toward sexist language. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(4), pp. 401-411.

Ragins, Belle Rose; Cotton, John. (1991). Easier said than done: Gender differences in perceived barriers to gaining a mentor. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), pp.939-951.

Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa. Exploring bias in Math teachers’ perceptions of students’ ability by gender and race/ethnicity. Gender & Society, 26(2), pp. 290-322, 2012.

Sandberg, Sheryl. (2013). Lean in: Women, work, and the will to lead. Random House.

Stone, Pamela. (2013). “OPTING OUT” Challenging Stereotypes and Creating Real Options for Women in the Professions. Recuperado de: https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/conferences/2013-w50-research-symposium/Documents/stone.pdf.

Stromquist, Nelly. (2015). Women in Higher Education today –structure and agency from a gender perspective. Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, 29(3), pp. 287-306.

UNIDAD DE MUJERES Y CIENCIA–UMYC. (2016). Científicas en cifras 2015. Estadísticas e indicadores de la (des) igualdad de género en la formación y profesión científica.

UNITED NATIONS. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly.

Vescio, Vicki; Ross, Dorene; Adams, Alyson. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, pp. 80-91.

Whitcomb, Jennie, Borko, Hilda; Liston, Dan. (2009.). Growing talent: Promising professional development models and practices. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), pp. 207-212.

World Bank. (2011). World development report 2012: Gender equality and development. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Wright, Jan; King, Richard. (1990). I say what I mean,” said Alice: an analysis of gendered discourse in Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10(2), pp. 210-225.

Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee. (2015). STEM Education. The Annual Review of Sociology, 41, pp.331-357.

Zeichner, Kenneth; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn. (2005). Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14295/momento.v27i3.8318

Métricas do artigo

Carregando Métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


MOMENTO - Diálogos em Educação, E-ISSN 2316-3100, Rio Grande/RS, Brasil

PROPESQ
PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ PROPESQ